(Extracted from the Cipher Calls For Papers list)



Upcoming Call for Papers


Internet Computing , Call for papers on "Widely Deployed Internet Security Solutions", November/December 2000, Guest Editors: Li Gong and Ravi Sandhu. (Submissions due: April 28, 2000)  [posted here January 28, 2000].
The goal of this special issue is two-fold. One is to reflect on security technology that have made into mainstream products and have been widely deployed within the past decade. An interesting perspective is why these solutions were picked over other competing solutions and what made them more attractive and acceptable. The other part of the goal is to access the state of the art in security research and technology with the hope that these investigations point to what may be deployed in the next decade. Topics of Interest include (but are not limited to) descriptions of and perspectives (historic, legal, etc.) on:
              *  Security solutions that are widely deployed 
              *  Security solutions that were once fashionable but no longer in use 
              *  Prevailing security solutions that are becoming obsolete 
              *  Emerging security solutions that are likely to be widely deployed 
We welcome submissions regarding security solutions covering all aspect of computing, including operating systems, networking, databases, distributed systems, human-computer interaction, the web, the Internet, information appliances, and wireless communication. However, we discourage abstract theory/idea papers, especially pure cryptography theory or crypto protocol papers. Our focus is on security solutions that were, are, or will be widely deployed.  Submission instructions can be found on the journal web page at

RAID' 2000  Third International Workshop on the Recent Advances in Intrusion Detection (in conjunction with ESORICS 2000), Toulouse, France, October 2-4, 2000.  (papers are due March 30, 2000; extended abstracts and panel proposals are due April 28th) [posted here February 7, 2000]
This workshop, the third in an ongoing annual series, will bring together leading figures from academia, government, and industry to discuss state-of-the-art intrusion detection technologies and issues from the research and commercial perspectives. RAID 2000 will welcome full papers in addition to extended abstracts and panel proposals, and has organized peer review to publish hardcopy proceedings.  Regarding paper submissions, submissions to RAID 2000 can be either a full-length paper or an extended abstract. Full papers are intended for the presentation of mature research results, while extended abstracts are intended for work-in-progress presentations. It is expected that more time will be allocated to full paper presentations. Panel submissions are also sought in the same areas. This year, we are emphasizing the following topic areas  (see the workshop web page for a more detailed list):

* Assessing, measuring and classifying intrusion-detection systems
* IDS in High Performance and Real-Time Environments
* Vulnerabilities and Attacks
* IDS Integration
* Innovative Approaches
* Practical Considerations
Full papers must be limited to 6000 words, full page figures being counted as 300 words.  Authors should follow the instructions given by Springer Verlag ( for the preparation of the manuscript. Extended abstracts must be original contributions and are limited to 1200 words in length.  Panel proposals must be limited to 400 words in length.  Please see the workshop web page at for a detailed list of topics of interest along with instructions for authors. 

DISC'2000, 14th International Symposium on DIStributed Computing, Toledo, Spain, October 4-6, 2000.  (Papers due April 11, 2000; announcements due May 10, 2000)  [posted here January 27, 2000].
Original contributions to theory, design, analysis, implementation, or application of distributed systems and networks are solicited. Topics of interest include, but are not limited to: distributed algorithms and their complexity, fault-tolerance of distributed systems, consistency conditions, concurrency control, and synchronization, multiprocessor/cluster architectures and algorithms, cryptographic and security protocols for distributed systems, distributed operating systems, distributed computing issues on the internet and the web , distributed systems management, distributed applications, such as databases, mobile agents, and electronic commerce, communication network architectures and protocols, specification, semantics, and verification of distributed systems.  A "brief announcement track" has been set up for ongoing work for which full papers are not ready yet or recent results published elsewhere are suitable for submission as brief announcements. More information on submissions can be found at the conference web page at is available at   

FMCS'2000  Workshop on Formal Methods and Computer Security, Chicago, Illinois, USA, July 20, 2000.  (extended abstracts are due April 14, 2000) [posted here March 13, 2000]
Computer security protocols are notoriously difficult to get right.  Surprisingly simple problems with some well known protocols have been found years after the original protocol was published and extensively analyzed. Our workshop goal is to bring together the formal methods and security communities.  Security is a current hot topic in the formal methods community, and we hope that this workshop can help focus these energies. Topics of interest include descriptive techniques (specification languages, models, logics) and analysis techniques (model checking, theorem proving, and their combination), as applied to protocols for authentication, fair exchange, electronic commerce, and electronic auctions. However, this list is not exclusive. We particularly want to hear about new approaches, new problems, new security properties, and new protocol bugs. Reports on work in progress are
welcome. The program of the workshop will include a keynote address by Doug Tygar, a
number of technical sessions (with talks of about 15-20 minutes duration), and a panel discussion.  An extended abstract (about 5-10 pages) explaining recent research results or work in progress should be mailed electronically to, to be received by April 14, 2000. More information can be found at the conference web site at 


WITS'2000, Workshop on Issues in the Theory of Security, Geneva, Switzerland, July 7-8, 2000 (Submissions due April 15, 2000)  [posted here January 27, 2000]
The members of The IFIP WG 1.7 on "Theoretical Foundations of Security Analysis and Design" will hold their annual workshop as an open event to which all researchers working on the theory of computer security are invited. The W/S will be co-located with ICALP '00 ( Its program will encourage discussions by all attendees, both during and after scheduled presentations on participants' ongoing work.  Topics of interest include:

* formal definition and verification of the various aspects of security:  confidentiality,   integrity, authentication and availability;

new theoretically-based techniques for the formal analysis and design of cryptographic protocols and their manifold applications (e.g., electronic commerce);

* information flow modeling and its application to the theory of confidentiality policies,
* composition of systems, and covert channel analysis;
* formal techniques for the analysis and verification of mobile code;
* formal analysis and design for prevention of denial of service.

Details on the conference and submission procedure can be found on the conference web site at, or contact the program chair, Pierpaolo Degano, by email,, or phone, +39 050 887257, or fax, +39 050 887226.


CHES'2000, Workshop on Cryptographic Hardware and Embedded Systems, Worcester Polytechnic Institute, Worcester, Massachusetts, USA., August 17-18, 2000.  (Submissions due April 15, 2000)  [posted here February 4, 2000]
The focus of this workshop is on all aspects of cryptographic hardware and embedded system design.  Of special interest are contributions that describe new methods for efficient hardware implementations and high-speed software for embedded systems. The topics of interest include but are not limited to:
          * Computer architectures for public-key cryptosystems
          * Computer architectures for secret-key cryptosystems
          * Reconfigurable computing and applications in cryptography
          * Cryptographic processors and co-processors
          * Modular and Galois field arithmetic architectures
          * Tamper resistance on the chip and board level
          * Architectures for smart cards
          * Tamper resistance for smart cards
          * Efficient algorithms for embedded processors
          * Special-purpose hardware for cryptanalysis
          * Fast network encryption
          * True and pseudo random number generators
If you want to receive emails with subsequent Call for Papers and registration information, please send a brief mail to  Complete instructions for authors can be found on the workshop web page at www.ece.WPI.EDU/Research/crypt/ches.  You may also contact the Program Chairs Cetin Kaya Koc (Koc@ece.orst,  +1 541 737 4853) or  Christof Paar (, +1 508 831 5061).

4th International Workshop on Discrete Algorithms and Methods for Mobile Computing & Communications,  Boston, Massachusetts, USA, August 11, 2000. In conjunction with ACM MobiCom 2000.  (Submissions due April 25, 2000).  [posted here January 27, 2000].
The introduction of mobility raises a number of new research issues. This workshop is devoted to discrete algorithms and methods in the context of mobile and wireless computing and communications. Contributions are solicited in all areas related to mobile computing and communications where discrete algorithms and methods are utilized, including, but not limited to: 
             * distributed algorithms frequency allocation 
             * scheduling location tracking 
             * site allocation multi-hop packet radio networks 
             * wireless networks synchronization 
             * cryptography and security error correcting codes 
             * handover (handoff) telecommunications 
             * modeling optimization 
             * routing satellite communication 
Instructions for submitting a paper or a panel proposal are given on the conference web page at  Since deadlines overlap, dual submission of papers to MobiCom and DIALM is encouraged. Any paper accepted for MobiCom will automatically be removed from consideration for DIALM.


CCS-7, 7th ACM Conference on Computer and Communication Security, November 1-4, 2000, Athens, Greece. (Abstract of papers due April 30, 2000) [posted here 11/11/99]
for submission to the 7th ACM Conference on Computer and Communication Security. Papers may present theory, technique, applications, or practical experiences on topics including:

*Database Security *Authentication and key management
*New threats and attacks *Authorization, access control, audit
*Privacy and anonymity *Cryptographic algorithms, protocols
*Steganography, watermarking *New security architectures
*Secure electronic commerce *Intrusion detection and response
*Security evaluation *Licensing and intellectual property
*Security education *Malicious code and countermeasures

Details on instructions for papers and panel proposals can be obtained from (USA Mirror site: or from Sushil Jajodia (

WSPEC'00, 1st Workshop on Security and Privacy in E-Commerce, November 4, 2000, Athens, Greece. Held in conjunction with the ACM Conference on Computers and Communications Security (ACM-CCS'00)  (Paper abstracts and panel proposals due May 1, 2000; Papers and case studies due June 1, 2000) [posted here 3/20/00]
The First Workshop on Security and Privacy in E-Commerce seeks to bring together practitioners and researchers to address the real-world security and privacy concerns in e-commerce. We are seeking contributions on topics in security and privacy that will enable the e-commerce systems of tomorrow to be developed more securely and robustly without compromising individual privacy rights. The workshop will focus on group discussion and
collaboration in identifying the important problems and potential solutions in this important topic area.  We are seeking research papers, business case studies, or system designs that address security and privacy concerns.  Topics of interest include:
       *  anonymizing e-commerce/Web transactions 
       *  component-based software in e-commerce 
       *  databases access control 
       *  denial of service attacks and countermeasures 
       *  detecting anomalous database transactions 
       *  detection and recovery from Internet-based attacks 
       *  e-commerce protocols 
       *  e-commerce systems 
       *  Internet client risks 
       *  malicious software or Trojan functionality 
       *  mobile agents in e-commerce 
       *  novel attacks and countermeasures 
       *  privacy negotiation/bartering 
       *  privacy risks with cookies/tokens/identifiers 
       *  software analysis and certification. 
See for the official Call For Papers.

SAC'2000, Seventh Annual Workshop on Selected Areas in Cryptography, August 14-15, 2000, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada.  (Papers due May 1, 2000) [posted here 3/20/00]
Workshop Themes: Details on submitting a paper are given on the conference web page at

ACSAC, 16th Annual Computer Security Applications Conference, Sheraton Hotel, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA, December 11-15, 2000. (Papers due: May 12, 2000; Case Studies due:  May 30, 2000) [posted here 3/14/00]
ACSAC is an internationally recognized conference for experts in information system security to exchange practical ideas about solving critical security problems. The following topic areas are of potential interest to ACSAC.

Internet technologies Intrusion detection and response / audit and audit reduction
Mobile computing Network management and smart card applications
Electronic commerce Incident response planning - governmental and other perspectives
Legal and ethical concerns over protecting intellectual property New paradigms for protecting electronic intellectual capital
Software safety and program correctness Crypto, key management, and digital signature applications
Security in health care and law enforcement Defensive information warfare
Securing very high-speed telecommunications (e.g., ATM)  

We encourage technical papers that relate to any of the above topics or other applications of computer security. Papers will be refereed prior to selection and one author will be expected to present at the conference. Format of submission is explained on our web site: Student papers can compete for best paper prizes and student conference scholarships are also provided. Panel discussions are always an important part of the conference since they promote a lively dialogue with all attendees and the panel members. Be sure to see our discussion page at If you have an idea for a panel or forum, see our web site for details:  Again this year we will have a track devoted to actual applications where real world problems have been solved. Vendors, systems integrators, and users can share knowledge and we will also have a display area to complement this portion of the conference. For details, see our web site: Tutorials are either full day (6instruction hours) or half day (3 instruction hours). For details, see our web page at  Got a question? See the FAQ on our web page at, or email

AMOC 2000, Asian International Mobile Computing Conference, Penang, Malaysia, November 1-3, 2000. (Submissions due: May 30, 2000) [posted here 11/17/99]
This conference will provide a platform for researchers and experts primarily from the Asian region to meet and discuss current issues in this field. The focus on Asia is important because there are unique regional issues not given attention in typical international conferences, where technological issues in developed nations receive centre stage. These unique issues include different infrastructural and economic requirements; the effect of a more diverse socio-economic environment on technological specifications; the wider-ranging impact of wireless communication in rural areas and the great interest in the rapid deployment of cutting edge technology due to the high progress rate of technological implementation in many Asian countries. A complete list of topics and guidelines for submissions is given on the conference web site at, or send email to

NORDSEC'2000, Fifth Nordic Workshop on Secure IT Systems - Encouraging Co-operation, Reykjavik, Iceland, October 12-13, 2000. (Submissions due: August 1, 2000) [posted here 3/14/00]
The NORDSEC workshops were started in 1996 with the aim to bring together researchers and practitioners within IT security in the Nordic countries. These workshops have remained a forum for co-operation between the Nordic research organizations, industry and the computer societies. The emphasis of the workshop is to encourage interchange and cooperation between the research community and the industrial and software development community. The theme of the workshop is applied security, i.e., all kinds of security issues for all kinds of information technology systems. We are in particular looking for contributions that deal with technology transfer and application of research in development. Furthermore, this year's NORDSEC will look more specifically at several Special Topics that are closely related to Computer Security, but are not often discussed in the same forum: Software Engineering, Virus Protection, and Privacy Protection. Details are to be found on the conference website at

INDOCRYPT'2000, First International Conference on Cryptology in India, Indian Statistical Institute, Calcutta, India, December 10-13, 2000. (Submissions due: August 10, 2000) [posted here 3/4/00]
Original papers on all technical aspects of cryptology are solicited.  Please see the conference web page at for paper submission details.

IHW'2001 4th International Information Hiding Workshop, Holiday Inn University Center, Pittsburgh, PA, USA, April 25-27, 2001 (submissions due December 7, 2000)  [posted here 2/26/00]
Many researchers are interested in hiding information or, conversely, in preventing others from doing so. As the need to protect digital intellectual property grows ever more urgent, this research is of increasing interest to both the academic and business communities. Current research themes include: copyright marking of digital objects, covert channels in computer systems, detection of hidden information, subliminal channels in cryptographic protocols, low-probability-of-intercept communications, and various kinds of anonymity services ranging from steganography through location security to digital elections. Interested parties are invited to submit papers on  research and practice which are related to these areas of interest. Further information  can be obtained at or by contacting the program chair at



Upcoming Conferences and Workshops
(April - August 2000)


CFP'2000, Computers, Freedom, and Privacy. CFP 2000 Challenging the Assumptions, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, April 4-7, 2000.  [posted here 8/17/99].
The theme of the tenth CFP conference is 'Challenging the Assumptions'. After a decade of CFP conferences, it's time to examine what we have learned. At CFP2000 we want to re-examine the assumptions we have been making and consider which ones still make sense as we move forward. Proposals are welcomed on all aspects of computers, freedom, and privacy. We strongly encourage proposals that challenge the future, tackle the hard questions, look at old issues in new ways, articulate and analyze key assumptions, and present complex issues in all their complexity. We are seeking proposals for tutorials, plenary sessions, workshops, and birds-of-a-feather sessions. We are also seeking suggestions for speakers and topics. Sessions should present a wide range of thinking on a topic by including speakers from different viewpoints. Complete submission instructions appear on the CFP2000 web site at

AES3, Third Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) Candidate Conference, New York, New York, USA, April 13-14, 2000. (Submissions due: January 15, 2000) [posted here: 9/23/99]
In the summer of 1999, NIST began Round 2 of the technical analysis of five candidate algorithms that have been selected as finalists for the AES development effort. Near the end of Round 2, the 3rd AES Candidate Conference (AES3) will focus on discussion of the technical resuts of Round 2 and views on candidates for Round 3. A complete call-for-papers is given on the conference web page at

MFPS, The Sixteenth Workshop on the Mathematical Foundations of Programming Semantics, Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, NJ, USA, April 13-16, 2000. [posted here 11/4/99].
The MFPS conferences are devoted to those areas of mathematics, logic and computer science which are related to the semantics of programming languages. The series particularly has stressed providing a forum where both mathematicians and computer scientists can meet and exchange ideas about problems of common interest. We also encourage participation by researchers in neighboring areas, since we strive to maintain breadth in the scope of the series. The invited speakers for MFPS 16 are:
                     Samson Abramsky University of Edinburgh
                     Rance Cleaveland Stony Brook
                     Andy Gordon Microsoft Cambridge
                     Robin Milner University of Cambridge
                     Peter O'Hearn Queen Mary - Westfield
                     Dana Scott CMU
In addition to the invited talks, there will be special sessions devoted to security and model checking. Those interested in contributing a talk at the meeting should send a title and short abstract to The available slots will be allocated on a first come, first served basis. As with other MFPS workshops, the Proceedings for MFPS 16 will consist of a special issue of the journal Theoretical Computer Science. All participants at the meeting (whether they present a talk or not) will be invited to submit a paper for the Proceedings; these submissions will be refereed to the usual TCS standards. Additional information available at or from

S&P'2000,2000 IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy, Oakland CA, USA, May 14-17, 2000.  [posted here: 8/17/99].
See the full CFP above or on the Cipher Web page or at

WWW9, 9th International World Wide Web Conference, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, May 15-19, 2000.   [posted here: 8/17/99].
Topics: E-Commerce, XML, Multimedia, Web Server Performance, Searching and Querying, Protocols, Web Document Management, Java, Web Site Design, Web Security, RDF, Database and Directory Services, Collaboration, Accessibility, Metadata, New Languages Submitted papers should present original reports of substantive new work in areas that can be theoretical (models, analyses, techniques, semantics), empirical (experiments, case studies), or implementation-oriented (new systems, tools, methodologies, user interfaces). Tutorial proposals are desired for both half-day and full-day sessions on topics of current relevance to Web design, services, operation, and use. Subjects of interest include XML, DOM, Multimedia, E-commerce, Java, Dynamic HTML, Security, Accessibility, Graphics and the Web, and other areas expected to be of special interest in spring 2000. WWW9 workshops are intended to provide a forum for highly interactive discussion on focused topics. Workshop proposals should address current web-related issues which can benefit from small-group information exchange and discussion. Attendance at workshops will be limited. Submission details are available at

ICCC  First International Common Criteria Conference, Baltimore, Maryland, USA, May 23-25, 2000.  [posted here January 27, 2000].
The ICCC will bring together the signatories to the Mutual Recognition Arrangement, their national implementation scheme administrators, accredited commercial testing laboratories, producers and consumers of information technology products, acquisition authorities and information assurance professionals from government, industry and academia throughout the world. There will be four tracks at the ICCC geared towards providing you with the most up to date, accurate and complete information on the Common Criteria process. Track A will focus on general information about the Common Criteria testing programs in countries around the world. Track B will take a more technical approach suited for evaluators, certifiers or validators looking for detailed technical information on the specifics of testing under the Common Criteria. Track C will look at the latest protection profiles and the types of tools and documents available to help you use the Common Criteria more effectively. Track D will be a tutorial for those wanting to become more familiar with the Common Criteria, the Common Evaluation Methodology and the Common Criteria Toolbox. For more detailed information on the ICCC or to register for the conference, visit the National Information Assurance Partnership (NIAP) web site: For information on the vendor exhibits to be held in conjunction with the ICCC on May 23 and 24, contact Janin Hardin or Stephanie King at the Federal Business Council, (800) 878-2940 or log on to:

20th Biennial Symposium on Communications, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada, May 28-31, 2000.  (Submissions Due: February 18, 2000) [posted here: 2/8/2000]. 

This symposium is intended to provide a forum for engineers and researchers in the area of communications and signal processing.  Original papers are encouraged from new areas of research on communications, as well as those traditionally associated with this conference.  A complete list of topics of interest (which includes cryptography and security) as well as submission instructions is provided on the conference web page at


FIRST'2000, The 12th Annual FIRST Conference on Computer Security and Incident Handling, Chicago, Illinois, USA, June 25-30, 2000.  [posted here: 10/27/99].
The Forum of Incident Response and Security Teams (FIRST, ) brings security incident response teams together including government, commercial, and academic organizations. The conference is a five day event, two days of tutorials and three days of technical sessions including refereed paper presentations, invited talks, and panel discussions. The focus of the FIRST'2000 conference is on the most recent practical advances in computer security in all its aspects. The Program Committee is soliciting original papers analyzing, among other topics, methodologies for drafting security policies, recent intrusion techniques, describing experiences in building incident response capabilities, working security architectures, pros and cons of both commercial and experimental pro-active security tools. The deadline for submissions is NOVEMBER 15, 1999. The full call for papers is at

CSFW-13, 13th IEEE Computer Security Foundations Workshop, Cambridge, England, July 3-5, 2000. (Submissions due: January 31, 2000) [posted here: 11/10/99].
This workshop series brings together researchers in computer science to examine foundational issues in computer security. We are interested both in new results in theories of computer security and also in more exploratory presentations that examine open questions and raise fundamental concerns about existing theories. Both papers and panel proposals are welcome. Possible topics include, but are not limited to:
*Access Control *Authentication *Data and System Integrity
*Database Security *Network Security *Distributed Systems Security
*Anonymity *Privacy *Security for Mobile Computing
*Security Protocols *Security Models *Formal Methods for Security
*Information Flow *Executable Content
Workshop attendance is limited to about 40 participants. Complete instructions for submitting a paper or panel proposal are provided on the workshop web page at 

ACISP'2000, Fifth Australasian Conference on Information Security and Privacy, Brisbane, Australia, July 10-12, 2000. (Submissions due: February 20, 2000) [posted here 9/13/99]
Papers pertaining to all aspects of information security and privacy are solicited. Papers may present theory, techniques, applications and practical experiences on any relevant topic including: authentication and identification, database security, mobile communications security, secure operating systems, security and cryptography policy, security management, commercial applications, key management and auditing, secure electronic commerce, security architectures and models, distributed system security, evaluation and certification, cryptology, access control, network security, smart cards, risk assessment and copyright protection. Please see the conference web page at for details.

PODC'2000, Nineteenth Annual ACM SIGACT-SIGOPS Symposium on Principles of Distributed Computing, Portland, Oregon, USA, July 16-19, 2000. (Submissions due: January 14, 2000) [posted here: 8/30/99].
Research contributions on the theory, design, specification, implementation or application of distributed systems are solicited. This year PODC will be held in conjunction with a workshop on middleware (information concerning the workshop will be posted on the PODC web site once it is available). In light of this, PODC especially encourages papers addressing distributed computing issues in building and using middleware. Topics of interest include, but are not limited to:

       * distributed algorithms and their complexity,
      * specification, semantics and verification of distributed systems,
      * issues relating to the design and use of middleware platforms,
      * fault tolerance of distributed systems,
      * cryptographic and security protocols for distributed systems,
      * mobile computing,
      * distributed computing issues in the Internet, including the Web,
      * communication network protocols and architectures,
      * multiprocessor/cluster architectures and algorithms,
      * distributed operating systems and databases,
      * consistency conditions, concurrency control and synchronization,
      * distributed object-oriented computing.
Conference presentations will have two formats: "Regular presentations" of approximately 25 minutes accompanied by papers of up to 10 pages in the proceedings, and "Brief announcements" of approximately 10 minutes accompanied by one page abstracts in the proceedings. Details on the conference and submission procedure can be found on the conference web site at, or contact the program chair, Jim Anderson, by email,, or phone, 1-919-962-1757.

RBAC'2000  Fifth ACM Workshop on Role-Based Access Control, Technical University of Berlin, Berlin, Germany, July 26-28, 2000.  (Abstracts due February 23, 2000; panel proposals due March 1, 2000; final papers due May 1, 2000)  [posted here January 27, 2000]
The ACM workshops on RBAC bring together researchers, developers, and practitioners to discuss the application of RBAC to both traditional and emerging systems and the development of new modeling paradigms for future applications. The workshop invites participation from the database, network, distributed systems, operating systems, security and application communities.  See the workshop web page at for information on submitting a paper or panel proposal.

USENIX, 9th USENIX Security Symposium, Denver, Colorado, USA, August 14-17, 2000. (Submissions due: February 10, 2000) [posted here: 9/20/99].
The USENIX Security Symposium brings together researchers, practitioners, system administrators, system programmers, and others interested in the latest advances in security and applications of cryptography. Please see the conference web site at for more information on the symposium, a detailed list of topics of interest, and the procedure for submitting a paper.