IEEE Network, Special Issue on Network Traffic Monitoring and Analysis, May 2011. (Submissions Due 15 November, 2010) Guest editors: Wei Wang (University of Luxembourg), Xiangliang Zhang (University of Paris-sud 11), Wenchang Shi (Renmin University of China), Shiguo Lian (France Telecom R&D Beijing ), Dengguo Feng (Chinese Academy of Sciences) Modern computer networks are increasingly complex and ever-evolving. Understanding and measuring such a network is a difficult yet vital task for network management and diagnosis. Network traffic monitoring, analysis and anomaly detection provides useful tools in understanding network behavior and in determining network performance and reliability so as to effectively troubleshoot and resolve the issues in practice.Network traffic monitoring and anomaly detection also provides a basis for prevention and reaction in network security, as intrusions, attacks, worms, and other kinds of malicious behaviors can be detected by traffic analysis and anomaly detection. This special issue seeks original articles examining the state of the art, open issues, research results, tool evaluation, and future research directions in network monitoring, analysis and anomaly detection. Possible topics include: * Network traffic analysis and classification * Traffic sampling and signal processing methods * Network performance measurements * Network anomaly detection and troubleshooting * Network security threats and countermeasures * Network monitoring and traffic measurement systems * Real environment experiments and testbeds For more information, please see http://dl.comsoc.org/livepubs/ni/info/cfp/cfpnetwork0511.htm .