The talk discusses cryptographic approaches to partially resolving the tension between privacy and surveillance. We use this question as motivation to survey recent developments in cryptography. In particular, we will discuss recent approaches to oblivious transfer using pairings that are particularly well suited for restricting access to phone call records. We treat the problem as a system involving three parties: (i) the phone carriers who provide data, (ii) a judge who decides when to permit data access, and (iii) an investigator who needs access to the data. We show how to ensure that data is accessed only under appropriate judicial review, while minimizing trust in the different components in the system. Moreover, the system is transparent and its correctness can be verified by any observer. This is joint work with Joshua Kroll, Joe Zimmerman, David Wu, Valeria Nicolaenko, and Ed Felten.